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On the Manuscripts of Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī: Discrepancies and Disappearance of the Original Copy

On the Manuscripts of Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī: Discrepancies and Disappearance of the Original Copy By ʿAbd al-Qādir Jalāl Translated by Muntasir Zaman Translator’s Preface Orientalist studies on Ḥadīth were part of a broader investigation into Islamic history. Their criticism on the reliability of Ḥadīth started as early as the nineteenth century; by 1848, Gustav Weil (d. 1889) had already criticized a...

A Study of Imām Muḥammad al-Shaybānī’s al-Ḥujjah ʿalā Ahl al-Madīnah

A Study of Imām Muḥammad al-Shaybānī’s al-Ḥujjah ʿalā Ahl al-Madīnah By Dr. Nājī Lamīn Translated by Muntasir Zaman [Translator’s note: the following excerpt explores the legal theory of Imām Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (d. 189 AH), a pioneer of the Ḥanafī school and leading acolyte of its eponym,[1] in light of his landmark polemic against the Medinese, al-Ḥujjah ʿalā Ahl al-Madīnah.[2]...

On the Statement “Acquire Knowledge from the Cradle to the Grave”

On the Statement “Acquire Knowledge from the Cradle to the Grave” By Shaykh ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Abū Ghuddah [Translator’s note: The purpose of translating this short excerpt is not only to highlight the status of the report in question. Shaykh ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ’s treatment of this report can be extended to other reports that may have a sound meaning but are not correctly transmitted from the Prophet...

A Historical Overview of Islāmic Legal Maxims

A Historical Overview of Islāmic Legal Maxims By Shaykh Muṣṭafā al-Zarqā Translated by Muntasir Zaman[1] Unlike conventional legal texts, Islamic legal maxims were not formulated at once. The conceptual underpinnings of these maxims and their definitions developed gradually when jurisprudence blossomed at the hands of leading jurists from the rank of derivative opinion-making (takhrīj) and rule...

On the Retention of the Companions

On the Retention of the Companions By Muntasir Zaman To evaluate the reliability of a narrator, Ḥadīth scholars examined two integral characteristics: probity (ʿadālah) and retention (ḍabṭ).[1] After studying the probity of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them), a person is left with the following question: companionship with the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) does not enhance...

The Life and Works of al-Kamāl Ibn al-Humām

The Life and Works of al-Kamāl Ibn al-Humām By Shaykh Muḥammad ʿAwwāmah Translated by Muntasir Zaman [The following excerpt is an abridged translation of the biography of Ibn al-Humām, the 9th century Ḥanafī legal theorist and jurist, whose erudition was acknowledged in countless fields like language, law, and Ḥadīth. For the entire piece, see Shaykh ʿAwwāmah, Dirāsah Ḥadīthiyyah Muqāranah, pp...

The Preservation of the Ḥadīth Literature

The Preservation of the Ḥadīth Literature By Muntasir Zaman “Marks of ink on one’s mouth and clothes are emblems of honor.”[1] – Ibrāhīm al-Nakha‘ī Introduction How has the Islamic civilization maintained the rich literary heritage of Ḥadīth developed by early Muslim scholars? What guarantee is there that the collections of ḥadīths in our possession have reached us accurately or that they...

The Life and Works of the Hanafī Jurist and Hadīth Scholar Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā

The Life and Works of the Hanafī Jurist and Hadīth Scholar Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā By Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah Translated by Muntasir Zaman Introduction His name is Zayn al-Dīn Abū al-‘Adl Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā al-Jamālī al-Hanafī, better known as ‘Allāmah Qāsim. He was born in Cairo in 802 AH where he lived until his demise in Rabī‘ al-Ākhir 879 AH. Growing up as an orphan, he began his studies at a...

On the Study of Comparative Fiqh (al-Fiqh al-Muqāran)

On the Study of Comparative Fiqh (al-Fiqh al-Muqāran) By Dr. Salāh Abū al-Hājj Translated by Muntasir Zaman [The following is an abridged translation of Dr. Salāh Abū al-Hājj’s discussion on comparative Fiqh. The author describes three methods of studying the differences of the jurists. The third method, better known as comparative Fiqh, is a modern concept that traces its origins to the 20th...

Guidelines on Evaluating Historical Reports

Guidelines on Evaluating Historical Reports By Shaykh Sharīf Hātim al-‘Awnī Translated by Muntasir Zaman [Translator’s preface: The following paper outlines an approach to evaluating the authenticity of historical reports. The author begins by emphasizing the merits of the Hadīth methodology, but makes sure to point out that not every science is obliged to adopt such a rigorous method. Drawing on...

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