Clarifying the Maxim: Our Madhhab is Correct and Possibly Incorrect While the Madhhab of Others is Incorrect and Possibly Correct.
By Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah
Translated by Muntasir Zaman
Objection: The following maxim is often quoted in the books of Fiqh: Our madhhab is correct and possibly incorrect while the madhhab of others is incorrect and possibly correct. What kind of conduct is this with those who hold a different opinion? How can they say this when they granted permission to make Taqlīd and recommended the observance of differences?
Clarification: It is true that they said this, but it is our responsibility to understand it according to their explanation and not according to hearts that are ill mannered towards them or minds that have failed to understand their intent. The correct method of understanding their statement is by establishing the conflict between the two statements. Thus we say:
Their statement regarding Taqlīd is proof of their approval of the madhhab of the one being followed (the Imām), and their recommendation for observing the opposing view is a clearer proof of their approval and regard for the opinion of the one who differs, so how did they make this statement? Read the rest of this entry »
The following is a dialogue that took place between ‘Allāmah Zāhid al-Kawtharī (d. 1371) and Shaykh Taqī al-Dīn al-Hilālī (d.1407) regarding the status of lifting ones hands (raf’ al-yadayn) in prayer in light of hadīth. The purpose of translating this dialogue is not to exhaust all the existing evidence of a particular view or to prove the superiority of one practice over the other. Rather, it is to point out the flaw of adopting a superficial approach when dealing with matters of jurisprudence, which at times may appear to contradict authentic hadiths due to shallow knowledge of the dynamics of Islāmic sciences. To make the article more-reader friendly, an idiomatic translation was adopted in many places.
Muntasir Zaman Read the rest of this entry »
The Forty-Scholar Council of Imām Abū Hanīfah
By Muntasir Zaman
Among the various specialties of the Hanafī school of thought, one outstanding specialty is the rigorous manner in which it was developed. Imām Abū Hanīfah had a group of prominent scholars with whom he would consult. Often they would only come to a conclusion on a particular issue after debating it for three days.
As such, one can understand the truthfulness of what Imām Wakī‘ ibn al-Jarrāh stated when a person in his gathering claimed that Imām Abū Hanīfah erred. He said:
How can Abū Hanīfah err when with him are the likes of Abū Yūsuf and Zufar in their logic; and the likes of Yahyā ibn Abī Zā’idah, Hafs ibn Ghiyāth, Hibbān, and Mindal in their memorization of hadīth; and the like of al-Qāsim ibn Ma‘n in his knowledge of language and Arabic; and Dāwūd al-Tā’ī and Fudayl ibn ‘Iyād in their asceticism and their scrupulousness? The one whose companions are such, he does not come close to erring, because if he erred they would correct him.
Moreover, there was a council of forty scholars from his companions who documented the legal issues. The following is a report that mentions this council, followed by its grading.
It is reported in Fadā’il Abī Hanīfah of Ibn Abī al-‘Awām:
With the month of Ramadān drawing near, both students and scholars have begun their preparation by reading books and revising discussions that relate to the blessed month, such as the laws of fasting and Salāt al-Tarāwih. Although countless books are available on the subject of Salāt al-Tarāwih, English readers have asked for a treatise in English that adequately covers the major aspects with their supporting evidences. To address this request, we have translated the chapter on Tarāwīh from the monumental work I’lā’ al-Sunan of Mawlana Zafar Ahmad al-‘Uthmānī. This comprehensive chapter deals with relevant discussions rarely found in other books, such as the proofs for making one complete recital of the Qur’ān in the Tarāwīh prayer. To make the article more reader-friendly, an idiomatic translation was adopted in several places and subtitles were added.
جَدوَل لأسماء أعلام الفقهاء الحنفية ومواليدهم ووفياتهم مع ذكر بعض مؤلفاتهم
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
لا يشك من له أدني إلمام بالعلم أن معرفة مواليد ووفيات الأعلام لها أهمية خاصة للباحث، وهذا لأسباب عديدة. منها أنها تعين الباحث على تعيين المراد باسم علم أو عنوان كتاب، وتحفظه من الأخطاء البينة من هذا القبيل. فإنه قد يتفق أن لكتابين عنوانا واحدا أو لعلمين اسما واحدا – مما يكون سببا للإختلاط على المبتدئ – مع أن الكتابين ألّفا في عصرين مختلفين أو العلمين ولدا في زمنين مختلفين، وهذا يحمل الباحث على إدراك الصواب في تعيين المراد بذلك الإسم أو العلم. فابن عابدين – مثلا – إذا نقل عبارة في مسألة من مسائل المناسك وعقبه بقوله “كما في اللباب” فالظاهر أن النقل من “لباب المناسك” لرحمة الله السندي دون “اللباب في شرح الكتاب” لتلميذه عبد الغني الغنيمي.
نظرا لهذه الأهمية أعددت هذا الجَدوَل لأسماء الفقهاء الحنفية، مبتدأ بإمام المذهب ومنتهيا بفقهاء هذا القرن، وذكرت مواليدهم ووفياتهم مع بعض مؤلفاتهم، ليتيسر لطلبة العلم حفظها والرجوع اليها عند الحاجة. اقتصرت فيه على الأعلام المشهورين تحرزا عن الإطالة وتيسيرا للطلبة، وأعرضت عن ذكر الأعلام الحنفية الذين اشتهروا في غير موضوع الفقه الحنفي. حاولت قدر المستطاع أن أعيّن مولد ووفاة كل علم مذكور في الجدول، وفيما لم أظفر على المولد اكتفيت بذكر الوفاة فقط وحينئذ قدمت عليها رمز “ت”-أي توفي. وكذا إذا لم أظفر على تعيينهما بالضبط اكتفيت بالتاريخ التقريبي مع الإشارة اليه برمز “ح” للحدود -أي في حدود سنة كذا. وزدت كلمة “قبل” أو “بعد” إذا كان من المعلوم أن وفاته قبل التاريخ المذكور أو بعده. وإذا كان في تعيين التاريخ اختلاف ربما أشرت إليه في الجَدوَل أو في الهامش. وإنما ذكرت بعض مؤلفاتهم مع العلم بأنه قد يكون لهم مؤلفات اُخرى.
ولا ينسى أن هذه العجالة موضوعة لإفادة من يحتاج إلى معرفة هذه الأسماء والتواريخ على وجه الاختصار. أما من يطلب التفصيل فليراجع كتب التراجم المناسبة مثل تاريخ بغداد للخطيب، الجواهر المضية للقرشي، تاج التراجم لقاسم بن قطلوبغا، الفوائد البهية للكهنوي، الأعلام للزركلي وغير ذلك من المراجع.
ولا بد لي أن أشكر كل من ساعدني في إعداد هذا الجدول ولا سيما أستاذي الجليل المفتي حسين كادوديا و أخي في الله مولانا زميل الرحمن
لو شعر القارئ الكريم أن هذا الجَدوَل يحتاج الي ترميم في موضع من المواضع، أو وجد فيه خطأ من أي وجهٍ، فالرجاء منه أن ينبه عليه – والكمال لله
Click here to download the Arabic Fuqaha List
Chronological List of Prominent Hanafi Jurists
The importance of knowing the dates of birth/death of the scholars cannot be stressed enough. For one, it saves a researcher from obvious blunders and inaccurate referencing. Many a times, several scholars or books share the same name but are from entirely different eras. Thus, when a scholar like Ibn ‘Ābidīn quotes “al-Lubāb,” for example, it is obvious that he is referring to a book other than that of his student, ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Ghunaymī.
The following is a chart of the names, birth/death dates, and works of major Hanafī jurists, starting from the Imām of the Madhhab until the jurists of the present century. In this chart, we have sufficed on the relatively prominent jurists, as otherwise, there would be no end to the list. Many other Hanafī scholars could have been added, but were omitted due to their prominence in fields besides Fiqh. Wherever possible, both the dates of birth and death were mentioned. Otherwise, only the date of death is mentioned, preceded by the abbreviation, “d.” When an approximate date is mentioned, it is preceded by “ca.” (circa). The abbreviation “p.” means “post.”
It should be noted that the purpose of this chart is to serve as an easy reference for those searching for the names and birth/death dates of major Hanafī jurists. Those who are interested in detailed biographical entries of these jurists should refer to the relevant works, such as Tarīkh Baghdād of al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī, al-Jawāhir al-Mudiyyah of al-Qurashī, Tāj al-Tarājim of Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā, al-Fawā’id al-Bahiyyah of al-Laknawī, and al-A‘lām of al-Ziriklī etc. The references for each entry alongside additional information is provided in the Arabic chart.
I would like to extend my gratitude to all those who have assisted me in compiling this list, in particular my beloved teacher Mufti Husain Kadodia and my fellow colleague Mufti Zameelur Rahman.
Readers are requested to notify the compiler of any errors or necessary changes.
Click here to download the English list of Hanafi jurists
A Diamond Among Rocks: Nisāb Al-Ihtisāb (The Manual of Al-Ihtisāb)
Among the many contributions of Islām which Muslims have rightfully boasted of through the ages has undoubtedly been its contribution in the line of academia. The very first revelation to the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessings be upon him) bears first hand testimony to this fact. From the intricacies of language to the subtleties of the spiritual heart, Muslim scholars have left no stone unturned in their contribution to humanity in general, and to the Muslim community in particular. One subject, seldom discussed, yet has played an important role in the smooth regulation of the affairs of Muslims for centuries is al-Ihtisāb, or “enforcing public good and preventing public wrong.”
The topic of al-Ihtisāb has received much attention from scholars throughout the centuries. Some scholars have incorporated the subject of al-Ihtisāb into their more general works on Fiqh, such as Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Alī al-Māwardī [d. 450 AH] in his al-Ahkām al-Sultāniyya, and al-Qādī Abū Ya‘lā [d. 458 AH] in a book with a similar title. Other scholars have authored independent treatises and works on the subject of al-Ihtisāb, such as Ahkām al-Sūq of Yahyā ibn ’Umar al-Andalūsī [d. 289 AH], which is one of the earlier works on the topic to have reached us, Nihāyat al-Rutbah fī Talab al-Hisbah of Jalāl al-Dīn al-Shīzarī [d. 589 AH], and Ma’ālim al-Qirbah fī Ahkām al-Hisbah of Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Qurashī [d. 729 AH].
One work in particular that we wish to discuss in this brief article is Nisāb al-Ihtisāb of ‘Umar ibn Muhammad al-Sunnāmī [d. ca. 725 AH]. The manual is an indispensable masterpiece for every Hanafī scholar, in particular Hanafī Muftīs. One can gauge the value of the book by the countless material exclusively found therein. In addition, it is the first and perhaps the only available Hanafī manual written on the topic. Unfortunately, since the value of the book is often not realized, it is abandoned in a heap of unused books, thus making it a diamond among rocks.